Niels Bohr (1885-1962)

One of the foremost scientists of the 20th century, Niels Henrik David Bohr was the first to apply the quantum theory, which restricts the energy of a system to certain discrete values, to the problem of atomic and molecular structure. He was a guiding spirit and major contributor to the development of quantum physics.

Bohr distinguished himself at the University of Copenhagen, winning a gold medal from the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters for his theoretical analysis of and precise experiments on the vibrations of water jets as a way of determining surface tension. …Bohr moved to Manchester in March 1912 and joined Ernest Rutherford’s group studying the structure of the atom.

At Manchester Bohr worked on the theoretical implications of the nuclear model of the atom recently proposed by Rutherford. Bohr was among the first to see the importance of the atomic number, which indicates the position of an element in the periodic table and is equal to the number of natural units of electric charge on the nuclei of its atoms. He recognized that the various physical and chemical properties of the elements depend on the electrons moving around the nuclei of their atoms and that only the atomic weight and possible radioactive behaviour are determined by the small but massive nucleus itself. Rutherford’s nuclear atom was both mechanically and electromagnetically unstable, but Bohr imposed stability on it by introducing the new and not yet clarified ideas of the quantum theory being developed by Max Planck, Albert Einstein, and other physicists. Departing radically from classical physics, Bohr postulated that any atom could exist only in a discrete set of stable or stationary states, each characterized by a definite value of its energy.

The most impressive result of Bohr’s essay at a quantum theory of the atom was the way it accounted for the series of lines observed in the spectrum of light emitted by atomic hydrogen. He was able to determine the frequencies of these spectral lines to considerable accuracy from his theory, expressing them in terms of the charge and mass of the electron and Planck’s constant (the quantum of action, designated by the symbol h). To do this, Bohr also postulated that an atom would not emit radiation while it was in one of its stable states but rather only when it made a transition between states. The frequency of the radiation so emitted would be equal to the difference in energy between those states divided by Planck’s constant. This meant that the atom could neither absorb nor emit radiation continuously but only in finite steps or quantum jumps. It also meant that the various frequencies of the radiation emitted by an atom were not equal to the frequencies with which the electrons moved within the atom, a bold idea that some of Bohr’s contemporaries found particularly difficult to accept. The consequences of Bohr’s theory, however, were confirmed by new spectroscopic measurements and other experiments.

Through the early 1920s, Bohr concentrated his efforts on two interrelated sets of problems. …As Bohr put it in 1923, “notwithstanding the fundamental departure from the ideas of the classical theories of mechanics and electrodynamics involved in these postulates, it has been possible to trace a connection between the radiation emitted by the atom and the motion of the particles which exhibits a far-reaching analogy to that claimed by the classical ideas of the origin of radiation.” Indeed, in a suitable limit the frequencies calculated by the two very different methods would agree exactly.

His work on atomic theory was recognized by the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1922.

..During the next few years, a genuine quantum mechanics was created, the new synthesis that Bohr had been expecting. The new quantum mechanics required more than just a mathematical structure

of calculating; it required a physical interpretation. That physical interpretation came out of the intense discussions between Bohr and the steady stream of visitors to his world capital of atomic physics, discussions on how the new mathematical description of nature was to be linked with the procedures and the results of experimental physics.

Bohr expressed the characteristic feature of quantum physics in his principle of complementarity, which “implies the impossibility of any sharp separation between the behaviour of atomic objects and the interaction with the measuring instruments which serve to define the conditions under which the phenomena appear.” As a result, “evidence obtained under different experimental conditions cannot be comprehended within a single picture, but must be regarded as complementary in the sense that only the totality of the phenomena exhausts the possible information about the objects.” This interpretation of the meaning of quantum physics, which implied an altered view of the meaning of physical explanation, gradually came to be accepted by the majority of physicists. The most famous and most outspoken dissenter, however, was Einstein.

..In his account of these discussions, however, Bohr emphasized how important Einstein’s challenging objections had been to the evolution of his own ideas and what a deep and lasting impression they had made on him.

During the 1930s Bohr continued to work on the epistemological problems raised by the quantum theory and also contributed to the new field of nuclear physics. His concept of the atomic nucleus, which he likened to a liquid droplet, was a key step in the understanding of many nuclear processes. In particular, it played an essential part in 1939 in the understanding of nuclear fission (the splitting of a heavy nucleus into two parts, almost equal in mass, with the release of a tremendous amount of energy).

To cite this page:
“Niels Bohr”
Britannica Online.
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[Accessed 10 May 1998].
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