Asset value.

One principle that accountants may adopt is to measure assets at their value to their owners. The economic value of an asset is the maximum amount that the company would be willing to pay for it. This amount depends on what the company expects to be able to do with the asset. For business assets, these expectations are usually expressed in terms of forecasts of the inflows of cash the company will receive in the future. If, for example, the company believes that by spending $1 on advertising and other forms of sales promotion it can sell a certain product for $5, then this product is worth $4 to the company. (see also Index: economic theory )
When cash inflows are expected to be delayed, value is less than the anticipated cash flow. For example, if the company has to pay interest at the rate of 10 percent a year, an investment of $100 in a one-year asset today will not be worthwhile unless it will return at least $110 a year from now ($100 plus 10 percent interest for one year). In this example, $100 is the present value of the right to receive $110 one year later. Present value is the maximum amount the company would be willing to pay for a future inflow of cash after deducting interest on the investment at a specified rate for the time the company has to wait before it receives its cash.
Value, in other words, depends on three factors: (1) the amount of the anticipated future cash flows, (2) their timing, and (3) the interest rate. The lower the expectation, the more distant the timing, or the higher the interest rate, the less valuable the asset will be.
Value may also be represented by the amount the company could obtain by selling its assets. This sale price is seldom a good measure of the assets’ value to the company, however, because few companies are likely to keep many assets that are worth no more to the company than their market value. Continued ownership of an asset implies that its present value to the owner exceeds its market value, which is its apparent value to outsiders.

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To cite this page:
“Accounting: MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES: Asset value.” Britannica Online.
[Accessed 10 May 1998].